30 de abril de 2013

Colleges Adapt Online Courses to Ease Burden

Jim Wilson/The New York Times
Katie Kormanik preparing to record a statistics course at Udacity, an online classroom instruction provider in Mountain View, Calif.

SAN JOSE, Calif. — Dazzled by the potential of free online college classes, educators are now turning to the gritty task of harnessing online materials to meet the toughest challenges in American higher education: giving more students access to college, and helping them graduate on time.

Virtual U.

This is the third article in a series that examines free online college-level classes and how they are transforming higher education.
Previous Articles in the Series:
Max Whittaker for The New York Times
Sebastian Thrun, a research professor at Stanford, is Udacity’s chief executive officer.
Nearly half of all undergraduates in the United States arrive on campus needing remedial work before they can begin regular credit-bearing classes. That early detour can be costly, leading many to drop out, often in heavy debt and with diminished prospects of finding a job.
Meanwhile, shrinking state budgets have taken a heavy toll at public institutions, reducing the number of seats available in classes students must take to graduate. In California alone, higher education cuts have left hundreds of thousands of college students without access to classes they need.
To address both problems and keep students on track to graduation, universities are beginning to experiment with adding the new “massive open online courses,” created to deliver elite college instruction to anyone with an Internet connection, to their offerings. 
While the courses, known as MOOCs, have enrolled millions of students around the world, most who enroll never start a single assignment, and very few complete the courses. So to reach students who are not ready for college-level work, or struggling with introductory courses, universities are beginning to add extra supports to the online materials, in hopes of improving success rates.
Here at San Jose State, for example, two pilot programs weave material from the online classes into the instructional mix and allow students to earn credit for them.
“We’re in Silicon Valley, we breathe that entrepreneurial air, so it makes sense that we are the first university to try this,” saidMohammad Qayoumi, the university’s president. “In academia, people are scared to fail, but we know that innovation always comes with the possibility of failure. And if it doesn’t work the first time, we’ll figure out what went wrong and do better.”
In one pilot program, the university is working with Udacity, a company co-founded by a Stanford professor, to see whether round-the-clock online mentors, hired and trained by the company, can help more students make their way through three fully online basic math courses.
The tiny for-credit pilot courses, open to both San Jose State students and local high school and community college students, began in January, so it is too early to draw any conclusions. But early signs are promising, so this summer, Udacity and San Jose State are expanding those classes to 1,000 students, and adding new courses in psychology and computer programming, with tuition of only $150 a course.
San Jose State has already achieved remarkable results with online materials from edX, a nonprofit online provider, in its circuits course, a longstanding hurdle for would-be engineers. Usually, two of every five students earn a grade below C and must retake the course or change career plans. So last spring, Ellen Junn, the provost, visited Anant Agarwal, an M.I.T. professor who taught a free online version of the circuits class, to ask whether San Jose State could become a living lab for his course, the first offering from edX, an online collaboration of Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Ms. Junn hoped that blending M.I.T.’s online materials with live classroom sessions might help more students succeed. Dr. Agarwal, the president of edX, agreed enthusiastically, and without any formal agreement or exchange of money, he arranged for San Jose State to offer the blended class last fall.
The results were striking: 91 percent of those in the blended section passed, compared with 59 percent in the traditional class.
“We’re engineers, and we check our results, but if this semester is similar, we will not have the traditional version next year,” said Khosrow Ghadiri, who teaches the blended class. “It would be educational malpractice.”
It is hard to say, though, how much the improved results come from the edX online materials, and how much from the shift to classroom sessions focusing on small group projects, rather than lectures.
Finding better ways to move students through the start of college is crucial, said Josh Jarrett, a higher education officer at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which in the past year has given grants to develop massive open online courses for basic and remedial courses.
“For us, 2012 was all about trying to tilt some of the MOOC attention toward the more novice learner, the low-income and first-generation students,” he said. “And 2013 is about blending MOOCs into college courses where there is additional support, and students can get credit. While some low-income young adults can benefit from what I call the free-range MOOCs, the research suggests that most are going to need more scaffolding, more support.”
Until now, there has been little data on how well the massive online courses work, and for which kinds of students. Blended courses provide valuable research data because outcomes can easily be compared with those from a traditional class. “The results in the San Jose circuits course are probably the most interesting data point in the whole MOOC movement,” Mr. Jarrett said.
Said Dr. Junn, “We want to bring all the hyperbole around MOOCs down to reality, and really see at a granular level that’s never before been available, how well they work for underserved students.”
Online courses are undeniably chipping at the traditional boundaries of higher education. Until now, most of the millions of students who register for them could not earn credit for their work. But that is changing, and not just at San Jose State. The three leading providers, Udacity, EdX and Coursera, are all offering proctored exams, and in some cases, certification for transfer credit through the American Council on Education.
Last month, in a controversial proposal, the president pro tem of the California Senate announced the introduction of legislation allowing students in the state’s public colleges and universities who cannot get a seat in oversubscribed lower-level classes to earn credit for faculty-approved online versions, including those from private vendors like edX and Udacity.
And on Wednesday, San Jose State announced that next fall, it will pay a licensing fee to offer three to five more blended edX courses, probably including Harvard’s “Ancient Greek Heroes” and Berkeley’s “Artificial Intelligence.” And over the summer, it will train 11 other California State campuses to use the blended M.I.T. circuits course.
Dr. Qayoumi favors the blended model for upper-level courses, but fully online courses like Udacity’s for lower-level classes, which could be expanded to serve many more students at low cost. Traditional teaching will be disappearing in five to seven years, he predicts, as more professors come to realize that lectures are not the best route to student engagement, and cash-strapped universities continue to seek cheaper instruction.
“There may still be face-to-face classes, but they would not be in lecture halls,” he said. “And they will have not only course material developed by the instructor, but MOOC materials and labs, and content from public broadcasting or corporate sources. But just as faculty currently decide what textbook to use, they will still have the autonomy to choose what materials to include.”
While San Jose State professors decided what material should be covered in the three Udacity math courses, it was Udacity employees who determined the course look and flow — and, in most cases, appeared on camera.
“We gave them lecture notes and a textbook, and they ‘Udacified’ things, and wrote the script, which we edited,” said Susan McClory, San Jose State’s developmental math coordinator. “We made sure they used our way of finding a common denominator.”
The online mentors work in shifts at Udacity’s offices in nearby Mountain View, Calif., waiting at their laptops for the “bing” that signals a question, and answering immediately.
“We get to hear the ‘aha’ moments, and these all-caps messages ‘THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU,’ ” said Rachel Meltzer, a Stanford graduate and mentor who is starting medical school next fall.
The mentors answer about 30 questions a day, like how to type the infinity symbol or add unlike fractions — or, occasionally, whether Ms. Meltzer is interested in a date. The questions appear in a chat box on-screen, but tutoring can move to a whiteboard, or even a live conversation. When many students share confusion, mentors provide feedback to the instructors.
The San Jose State professors were surprised at the speed with which the project came together.
“The first word was in November, and it started in January,” said Ronald Rogers, one of the statistics professors. “Academics usually form a committee for months before anything happens.”
But Udacity’s approach was appealing.
“What attracted us to Udacity was the pedagogy, that they break things into very small segments, then ask students to figure things out, before you’ve told them the answer,” said Dr. Rogers, who spends an hour a day reading comments on the discussion forum for students in the worldwide version of the class.
Results from the pilot for-credit version with the online mentors will not be clear until after the final exams, which will be proctored by webcam.
But one good sign is that, in the pilot statistics course, every student, including a group of high school students from an Oakland charter school, completed the first, unproctored exam.
“We’re approaching this as an empirical question,” Dr. Rogers said. “If the results are good, then we’ll scale it up, which would be very good, given how much unmet demand we have at California public colleges.”
Any wholesale online expansion raises the specter of professors being laid off, turned into glorified teaching assistants or relegated to second-tier status, with only academic stars giving the lectures. Indeed, the faculty unions at all three California higher education systems oppose the legislation requiring credit for MOOCs for students shut out of on-campus classes. The state, they say, should restore state financing for public universities, rather than turning to unaccredited private vendors.
But with so many students lacking access, others say, new alternatives are necessary.
“I’m involved in this not to destroy brick-and-mortar universities, but to increase access for more students,” Dr. Rogers said.
And if short videos and embedded quizzes with instant feedback can improve student outcomes, why should professors go on writing and delivering their own lectures?
“Our ego always runs ahead of us, making us think we can do it better than anyone else in the world,” Dr. Ghadiri said. “But why should we invent the wheel 10,000 times? This is M.I.T., No. 1 school in the nation — why would we not want to use their material?”
There are, he said, two ways of thinking about what the MOOC revolution portends: “One is me, me, me — me comes first. The other is, we are not in this business for ourselves, we are here to educate students.”

O fim da miséria

29 de abril de 2013 | 2h 06
O Estado de S.Paulo
O Banco Mundial (Bird) definiu como meta acabar com a pobreza extrema no mundo até 2030. "As pessoas têm falado há anos sobre o fim da miséria, mas agora é diferente", disse o presidente do Bird, Jim Kim, que classificou a decisão de "histórica". Seu otimismo se baseia na contínua queda do número de pobres no mundo e no crescimento dos países emergentes.
O próprio Banco Mundial advertiu, contudo, que não será nada fácil atingir o objetivo, pois não basta simplesmente distribuir dinheiro para que, estatisticamente, determinadas pessoas deixem de ser consideradas miseráveis, como tem sido alardeado no Brasil sob o governo petista.
O Bird acredita que sua meta seja factível porque, segundo suas contas, o número de pessoas vivendo em pobreza extrema no mundo caiu de 43% em 1990 para 21% em 2010, um objetivo que, de acordo com as expectativas iniciais, seria atingido somente em 2015. A intenção é de que, em 2030, o porcentual seja de apenas 3%.
Pelos critérios da entidade, está na faixa de pobreza extrema quem ganha até o equivalente a R$ 2,50 por dia. A chamada "linha de pobreza moderada" é de R$ 8. Quem recebe entre R$ 8 e R$ 20 por dia é considerado "vulnerável" - ou seja, ainda não é propriamente de classe média, porque pode voltar a ser classificado como pobre a qualquer momento, dependendo da conjuntura econômica. O Brasil tem uma definição mais elástica de classe média - entre R$ 12 e R$ 40 por dia -, o que inclui os "vulneráveis". É apenas uma entre tantas distorções marqueteiras das políticas de combate à pobreza no País - cujos inegáveis méritos são magnificados para escamotear a incapacidade do governo de fornecer a quem recebe o Bolsa-Família e outras ajudas as condições mínimas para que tenham alguma chance de superar definitivamente sua pobreza.
A esse respeito, o Bird chama a atenção para o fato de que a meta de redução da miséria não pode ser alcançada por meio de políticas que representem endividamento do Estado e que comprometam a segurança econômica dos "vulneráveis". Trata-se, ao contrário, de manter intactos os fundamentos da economia, como a inflação sob controle, e estimular os investimentos públicos e privados para melhorar a infraestrutura.
Desse modo, na visão do Bird, permite-se que o crescimento econômico experimentado pelo mundo em desenvolvimento seja traduzido em redução sólida e duradoura da pobreza, com melhor distribuição da riqueza e da prosperidade.
Embora tenha citado o Brasil como exemplo de combate às desigualdades, o Bird chamou a atenção para o fato de que, "para reduzir a pobreza, é fundamental que o crescimento econômico seja acelerado". Trata-se do óbvio: só é possível distribuir riqueza quando ela é gerada, de maneira contínua e sustentada.
É inegável que o dinheiro da assistência governamental proporciona a um grande número de pessoas extremamente pobres a possibilidade de se alimentar um pouco melhor e de ter algo para vestir, e isso pode ser a diferença entre a vida e a morte.
O resultado positivo dos programas de transferência de renda é visível. Mas não existe mágica que altere o fato de que um grande contingente de pobres continuará sem acesso à saúde, saneamento básico, habitação e escolas decentes, porque há escassos investimentos nessas áreas, de modo que as chances que essas pessoas têm de se manter acima da linha da miséria, de maneira consistente, são próximas de zero.
De nada adianta cumprir estatisticamente a meta de acabar com a pobreza em 2030 se, ao mesmo tempo, não forem criadas condições para que a maioria das pessoas possa participar do crescimento da economia. Os mecanismos assistencialistas devem ser um meio meramente auxiliar num esforço mais amplo contra a pobreza, e não um fim em si mesmo. Como disse o presidente do Bird, temos a chance de acabar com a chaga da miséria em uma geração. Não podemos desperdiçá-la com demagogia e incompetência.

Venda de armas para EUA sobe 187,5%

Venda de armas para EUA sobe 187,5% na gestão Lula
Americanos compram 80% de tudo que o Brasil exporta no setor
A Taurus responde por por mais de 50% das exportações no acumulado de 40 anos, segundo o Exército
RUBENS VALENTEDE BRASÍLIA, Folha de S.Paulo, 30.4.2013
Os Estados Unidos, que discutem restrições ao comércio de armamentos, adquiriram 7,9 milhões de armas de fogo do Brasil nos últimos 40 anos, e 59% desse total foi exportado durante o governo Lula (2003-2010).
É o que indica um levantamento inédito do Comando do Exército obtido pela Folhapor meio da Lei de Acesso à Informação, com o registro detalhado de vendedores e compradores de 9,9 milhões de revólveres, pistolas, carabinas e espingardas, entre outras armas, enviadas para fora do Brasil de 1971 a 2011.
A exportação dos armamentos brasileiros para os EUA aumentou 187,5% nos oito anos do governo Lula em comparação com o mesmo período do governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002). De 2003 a 2010, as indústrias brasileiras destinaram ao território norte-americano um total de 4,6 milhões de armas, o suficiente para armar a população inteira de países como Noruega e Croácia.
Em 2011, o Brasil foi o líder das exportações para os EUA, com 846 mil armas de fogo, à frente da Áustria (a segunda colocada com 522 mil) e da Alemanha (a terceira, com 313 mil).
O raio x das exportações revela que três empresas criadas nos EUA pelas fabricantes brasileiras Forjas Taurus e Amadeo Rossi adquiriram a maior parte das armas que entraram naquele mercado.
As fabricantes não informam ao governo brasileiro o destino final dessas armas, o que afastaria a hipótese de que estejam sendo redirecionadas a outras países.
Alegando sigilo comercial, a Taurus se recusou a informar à Folha quem são os clientes das suas subsidiárias norte-americanas.
Para especialistas no tema, a reexportação é um fenômeno bastante conhecido. De acordo com eles, centenas de armas fabricadas pela Taurus foram achadas num depósito em Trípoli após a queda do ditador Muammar Gaddafi.
Contudo, no levantamento obtido pela Folha há o registro da venda de apenas duas armas para a Líbia.
Maria Laura Canineu, diretora da ONG Human Rights Watch para o Brasil, afirmou que o país chegou a defender, nas discussões do novo tratado global para comércio de armas, aprovado neste ano na ONU (Organização das Nações Unidas), a exigência de que o exportador emita um certificado de "utilizador final" da arma, mas a versão final do tratado acabou ficando "frágil nesse sentido", sem "uma exigência clara".
Segundo Maria Laura, a nova Lei de Acesso representa um avanço, mas o Brasil "tem enfrentado severas críticas pela falta de transparência na exportação de armas".
A quarta maior compradora nos EUA dos produtos brasileiros foi a Springfield Incorporation, uma conhecida apoiadora da Associação Nacional do Rifle (NRA, na sigla em inglês). Há duas semanas, uma proposta de regulação do presidente Barack Obama foi recusada pelo Congresso.
O poder de fogo político das fabricantes brasileiras também se revela em tempos de eleição. Duas empresas e uma associação do setor doaram R$ 3 milhões a candidatos diversos na disputa eleitoral de 2010, incluindo R$ 500 mil para a direção nacional do PT e R$ 200 mil para a campanha que elegeu Dilma Rousseff.
Abaixo dos EUA, os principais destinos das exportações brasileiras foram, em números aproximados, a Argentina (215 mil armas), Paraguai (154 mil), Iêmen (112 mil) e Alemanha (109 mil).
Com uma receita de R$ 701 milhões e lucro líquido de R$ 42 milhões em 2012, a Taurus, sediada no Rio Grande do Sul, foi responsável por mais de 50% das exportações brasileiras nos últimos 40 anos. No relatório de administração do ano passado, a empresa informou que 60% de sua produção foi para o exterior. Desse volume, 88% teve como destino os EUA, o que correspondeu a cerca da metade de sua receita no período.

    Tecnologias, tendências e desafios no ensino superior até 2018

    Relatório ouviu 51 especialistas em educação, tecnologia e futuro, além de escritores e pensadores

    29 de abril de 2013 | 20h 08
    Portal Porvir
    Acaba de sair do forno o Horizon Report 2013 voltado ao ensino superior. Já tradicional e esperado, o documento anual identifica seis tecnologias emergentes que deverão se tornar populares até 2018, seis tendências e seis desafios que as universidades devem ter no seu dia a dia para um período de até cinco anos. O grupo que ajudou a elaborar o relatório foi composto por 51 especialistas em educação, tecnologia e futuro, além de escritores e pensadores. Eles foram reunidos pelo New Media Consortium e pela Educase Learning Initiave, ambas organizações localizadas nos EUA e dedicadas ao estudo das tendências na educação. Confira, a seguir, as três listas.
    Ao grupo de especialistas foi perguntado que tecnologias teriam maior importância para o ensino, a aprendizagem e o questionamento criativo nos próximos cinco anos, dividindo as análises em três espaços de tempo: até 1 ano, de 2 a 3, e até 5. A pergunta, respondida por meio de uma complexa metodologia que envolve análise de bibliografia e compilação de dados colaborativamente, tentava determinar muito mais do que uma moda, mas as ferramentas que passariam a ser usadas pelas principais instituições de ensino superior. Confira a lista:
    1. Moocs (1 ano)Os Cursos Abertos Online Massivos (Moocs, na sigla em inglês) se tornaram muito populares a partir do ano passado, com o lançamento de iniciativas de peso, como edX, Coursera e Udacity. Algumas das características que justificam toda essa popularidade são a possibilidade de aprendizado continuado, de nível superior e gratuito.
    2. Tablet computing (1 ano)Na medida em que os tablets têm se tornado tecnologias mais baratas, também fica mais claro que esses aparelhinhos têm características únicas, que podem ser aproveitadas no universo educacional. Como são portáteis, facilitam o acesso à internet e o compartilhamento de documentos em quase qualquer ambiente. Além disso, com a possibilidade de baixar uma variedade imensa de apps, cada tablet também facilita um aprendizado customizado.
    3. Gaming e gamificação (2 a 3 anos)Gaming, ou simplesmente jogar, tem por objetivo promover o engajamento dos alunos, uma vez que desafia seus conhecimentos em uma determinada disciplina. Mais recentemente, surgiu a necessidade de se incluir também a gamificação nessa tendência. A gamificação é a integração dos elementos dos jogos, como níveis, badges e competição, ao currículo. Nas edições anteriores do Horizon Report, essa dimensão vinha sendo chamada de educação baseada em jogos, mas foi ampliada na medida em que, além de incluir as ferramentas necessárias para apoiar o aprendizado, essa tendência também está envolta a em uma cultura e em um design específicos.
    4. Learning analytics (2 a 3 anos)Ferramenta usada para decifrar tendências e padrões a partir de big data disponível sobre o aprendizado dos alunos. Primeiro, o uso do analytics se restringia a alunos com dificuldades de aprendizado. Hoje ele já se mostra um recurso mais generalizado e extremamente útil para fazer escolhas pedagógicas a partir da necessidade dos alunos. As universidades têm usado o analytics para fazer com que o processo de orientação dos estudantes se torne muito mais preciso.
    5. Impressoras 3D (5 anos)As impressoras 3D oferecem uma forma muito mais barata e rápida de se prototipar projetos. No cenário educacional, essas ferramentas têm sido usadas em uma gama muito grande de pesquisas e laboratórios, especialmente de Stem (acrônimo que reúne áreas de ciência, tecnologia, engenharia e matemática). A expectativa dos especialistas é que, em cinco anos, elas passem a ser amplamente usadas em outras áreas para criar modelos tridimensionais
    6. Tecnologia para vestir (5 anos)Pela primeira vez no Horizon, a chamada “wearable technology” integra equipamentos eletrônicos a roupas e acessórios. Muitas dessas tecnologias já têm aparecido no mercado e já mostram potencial para serem usadas no ensino e no aprendizado. Realidade aumentada e telas finas que podem ser acopladas a superfícies são exemplos que devem se desenvolver.
    Para produzir o relatório, os especialistas são convidados a entender o contexto em que a educação está para tentarem prospectar temas que se tornarão tendências. Muitas das tendências descritas pelos especialistas têm estreita correlação com as tecnologias há pouco apresentadas.
    1. Educação abertaConceitos como conteúdo, dados e recursos abertos, assim como noções de transparência e acesso fácil à informação estão se tornando um valor importante. Muito comumente confundida com educação gratuita, a educação aberta não só é grátis, mas replicável, remixável e sem barreiras ao acesso e à interação.
    2. Cursos abertos e gratuitosCom a popularização dos Moocs, os cursos online, abertos e gratuitos passam a se fortalecer como uma alternativa ao estudo tradicional.
    3. Habilidades do mundo realO mercado de trabalho demanda dos recém-formados habilidades que são mais frequentemente adquiridas fora da escola, em situações de aprendizado informal.
    4. Novas fontes de informaçãoExiste um crescente interesse em usar novas fontes de informação para personalizar e medir a experiência do aprendizado. Com os alunos se dedicando cada vez mais a atividades online, há cada vez mais pegadas digitais que podem ser rastreadas pelo analytics, ferramenta também em franco desenvolvimento.
    5. Novo papel para o professorO crescimento e a valorização do aprendizado informal e o aumento na quantidade de recursos de educação têm feito com que as funções dos educadores sejam repensadas. Agora, eles devem se portar muito mais como mentores e conectores de todas as informações disponíveis do que detentores do conhecimento.
    6. Novo paradigmaA educação caminha para se tornar cada vez mais online, híbrida e calcada em modelos colaborativos.
    Tanto as tecnologias emergentes quanto as grandes tendências esperadas no campo da educação superior têm sua ocorrência atrelada a importantes desafios por que passam as universidades.
    1. Capacitação de professoresDocentes ainda não estão sendo capacitados para agir na era digital.
    2. Novas formas de avaliação de paresA métrica que costumava ser usada para avaliar trabalhos científicos não consegue avaliar com precisão trabalhos difundidos via internet. Novas formas de revisão de pares, tais como notas de leitores, inclusão e menção em blogs influentes, tagueamento e retuítes, começam a ser valorizadas.
    3. Resistência internaMuito frequentemente é o próprio processo educacional que limita a adoção de novas tecnologias.
    4. Tecnologias e práticas inadequadasTecnologias capazes de oferecer um aprendizado cada vez mais personalizado têm sido muito demandadas, mas elas estão apenas começando a ser adotadas.
    5. Modelos tradicionais são questionadosA popularidade e o alcance dos Moocs está obrigando instituições tradicionais de ensino superior a repensarem o seu papel.
    6. Pesquisadores não usam tecnologiasMuitos professores e pesquisadores ainda não usam as tecnologias digitais para aprender, ensinar ou mesmo organizar a sua pesquisa.

    Break the cycle of economic failures: Gordon Brown

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    Break the cycle of economic failures: Brown
    12:13 AM
    HH Sheikha Moza bint Nasser with Gordon Brown at high-level EAC meeting.

    By Joseph Varghese/Staff Reporter
    There is an urgent need to invest in education to break the cycle of economic failures in various parts of the world, Gordon Brown, former British prime minister and the UN Secretary General’s Special Envoy for Global  Education, said yesterday.
    He was speaking at the opening session of ‘High Level Strategic Meeting to Accelerate Efforts to Reach Out Of School Children’ organised by Educate A Child (EAC), an initiative of HH Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Chairperson of Qatar Foundation.
    EAC aims to provide quality primary education for 61mn children, most of them living in developing countries and conflict zones. The initiative has already reached out to 600,000 students since its inception six months ago. EAC plans to educate around 10mn children by 2015-2016.
    Addressing the opening ceremony of the forum, Brown said that EAC had done a very commendable job in such a short time.
    “Nobody in the present times has done more than HH Sheikha Moza bint Nasser for the cause of education and no educational initiative has been more effective than EAC in such a short span of time.”
    He emphasised the need and urgency to act on educational initiatives as there were only just 1,000 days left for realising the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). “We need to recall the face of the poorest children and educate them on an emergency basis,” he added.
    Brown said that many countries had already cut many of their  educational aids. “There is a responsibility on us to act in this regard and make sure that every child goes to school.”
    He also said that there was also gender discrimination in different parts of the world as girl children were put to child labour and human trafficking.
    “No country can become a high earning country without education. When you educate a girl, you educate a family, a community and the society at large,” Brown added.
    He said that there were several discussions on this count in Washington recently and many more meetings to follow.
    Citing the example of Malala, the Pakistani girl who was shot by extremists for standing up for her right to education, Brown said that the time had come to stay firm for the education of all the children in the world.
    “EAC is the beginning of a great movement. This must lead us to the first generation in the history of the world who will witness all the children in the world attending school. This is the dream and we are working to realise it,” he concluded.
    Addressing the gathering, HE Sheikh Ahmed bin Mohamed bin Jabor al-Thani, Assistant Foreign Minister for International Co-operation, pointed out that the initiative focused not just on the quantity but the quality of the education too.
    He said: “It is an international mechanism to deal with the problems of education. It aims to provide the unalienable rights of education to children all over the world and tackle the issues associated with it.”
    “We have provided support for education in more than 36 countries. The strategy is to provide educational opportunities for all the children around the world so as to realise the millennium development goals,” he said.
    He also called on all the international community to support the initiative.

    BELOW: HE Sheikh Ahmed bin Mohamed bin Jabor al-Thani addressing the gathering.

    Photos Related

    Educate A Child initiative helps 600,000 in six months

    Monday, 29 April 2013, The Peninsula

    H H Sheikha Moza bint Nasser during a visit to the Horseed School at Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya, as part of a fact-finding mission prior to the launch of Educate A Child initiative.
    DOHA: The Educate A Child (EAC) initiative of H H Sheikha Moza bint Nasser has helped 600,000 children get quality schooling just six moths after its launch. 
    Sheikha Moza is to make an official announcement today about the achievements of her education initiative in a meeting at the Qatar National Convention Centre. Speaking ahead of the meeting at which she will welcome ministers and senior government officials from 18 states, Sheikha Moza said that while this was an outstanding start, much work remains to be done. 
    “Half a million more children in the classroom means half a million more people given the opportunity to fulfill their potential, to realise their ambitions and to contribute fully to their communities, their nations and yes, to humanity,” said Sheikha Moza.
    “But it also highlights just how much remains to be done to give this opportunity to all the 61 million children who through no fault of their own are being deprived of one of their most basic human rights. This meeting will seek to build partnerships to get millions of more children into school,” she added. 
    One of EAC’s most striking successes in the past six months has been its partnership with organisations like UNHCR and Unicef in helping refugee children around the world. Right now, EAC is helping refugee children in 12 countries through these partnerships. EAC is currently targeting 34 countries that account for more than 70 percent of the world’s out-of-school children and is already working in 17 countries. 
    Today, 17 government ministers and representatives of target countries are in Doha for an intensive two-day programme of networking, regional seminars and troubleshooting clinics, designed to help participants find and explore affordable, local, culturally relevant solutions to this problem. 
    This represents a continuation, extension and development of some of the work begun last year at the UN General Assembly, where UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched his Global Education First Initiative; and at the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) held in Doha soon afterwards. 
    It also follows on from work undertaken earlier this month in Washington, where Sheikha Moza addressed a ministerial roundtable at the World Bank.
    The Doha meeting will examine collaborative efforts to provide opportunities for all children, improve and modernise systems of education worldwide and produce generations well-prepared to contribute positively to the new world we are trying to build together — all the while preserving the cultural identities of the societies that will make it up. 
    As EAC rapidly becomes recognised internationally as a driver for change in the field, ministers and other high-level representatives will also have the opportunity to meet and form alliances with the private sector, programme sponsors, NGOs and development agencies of every type in a ‘Marketplace’ session designed to maximise the potential for real, positive outcomes.
    Another highlight of the meeting will be the publication of A Moral Obligation, an Economic Priority, an important new research paper by Dr Nicholas Burnett of the Washington-based Results for Development Institute commissioned by EAC. 
    A prominent expert in the field, Dr Burnett demonstrates that over and above the overriding moral imperative to give children the education they deserve there is a crippling economic cost to developing nations of up to seven percent of their Gross Domestic Product per annum if they fail to do so. 
    Sheikha Moza added: “Strategically, we must link education to efforts to reducing poverty, providing meaningful employment opportunities, investing in skills development, encouraging sustainable growth, strengthening social protection mechanisms, promoting gender equality and focusing on human development and human capital. We have the momentum with us, and I am sure this meeting will give us all renewed determination and inspiration to meet this enormous challenge.”
    The Peninsula
    Countries represented at Doha EAC 2013
    Ministerial Meeting
    Countries Number of out of school children
    Afghanistan 5,000,000
    Bangladesh 2,294,000
    Chad 506,100
    Cote d’Ivoire 1,001,000
    DRC 3,500,000
    Ghana 791,049
    Haiti 400,000
    Niger 1,085,721
    Nigeria 10,542,105
    Pakistan 5,125,373
    Philippines 1,460,431

    29 de abril de 2013

    Foreign Policy: The 500 most powerful people on the planet.

    The FP Power Map

    MAY/JUNE 2013

    Is it possible to identify the 500 most powerful individuals on the planet -- one in 14 million? That's what we tried to do with the inaugural FP Power Map, our inventory of the people who control the commanding heights of the industries that run the world, from politics to high finance, media to energy, warfare to religion. Think of it as a list of all the most important other lists. Here's how they stack up -- and why (sorry, declinists!) Americans are still No. 1 in pretty much everything that matters. For now.
    Sources and Methods: Where possible, we took a "list of lists" approach, consulting the authoritative rankings for a given industry and substituting judgment where quantitative assessments do not exist. Among our sources: Box Office Mojo Yearly Box OfficeCitypopulation.de by Thomas Brinkoff, Forbes 100 Most Powerful WomenForbes World's Most Powerful PeopleGlobal Finance World's 50 Biggest BanksFortune Global 500Global Journal Top 100 NGOs, Institute of Media and Communications Policy International Media CorporationsPensions & Investments/Towers Watson World 500PFC Energy 50SIPRI Military Expenditure Database and SIPRI Top 100 companies, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute Fund RankingsTimes Higher Education World University Rankings by Thomson Reuters, Vanity Fair New Establishment ListWall Street Journal MarketWatch World's Largest Mutual Funds.
    Mahmoud AbbasPresident, Palestinian AuthorityWest BankPolitics
    Tony AbbottLiberal Party leaderAustraliaPolitics
    Shinzo AbePrime ministerJapanPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Jill AbramsonNew York Times executive editorUSABully Pulpit
    Sheldon AdelsonLas Vegas Sands CEO and chairUSAPoliticsMoney
    Aga Khan IVIsmaili Muslim imamBritainBully PulpitMoney
    Daniel AkersonGeneral Motors CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Rinat AkhmetovSystem Capital Management ownerUkraineMoney
    Karl AlbrechtAldi Süd ownerGermanyMoney
    Vagit AlekperovLukoil presidentRussiaMoney
    Keith AlexanderNational Security Agency directorUSAForce
    Paul AllenMicrosoft co-founder and Vulcan Inc. chairUSABrainsMoney
    Yukiya AmanoInternational Atomic Energy Agency director-generalJapanGood
    Shlomo AmarSephardic chief rabbiIsraelBully Pulpit
    Mukesh AmbaniReliance Industries chair and managing directorIndiaMoney
    Yaakov AmidrorNational security advisorIsraelForce
    Celso AmorimDefense ministerBrazilForce
    Marc AndreessenAndreessen Horowitz co-founderUSABrainsMoney
    A.K. AntonyDefense ministerIndiaForce
    Catherine AshtonEuropean Union foreign ministerBritainPolitics
    Taro AsoFinance ministerJapanMoney
    Bashar al-AssadPresidentSyriaEvil
    Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz al-AssafFinance ministerSaudi ArabiaMoney
    Aung San Suu KyiOpposition leaderBurmaPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Jean-Marc AyraultPrime ministerFrancePolitics
    Alberto BaillèresGrupo Bal chairMexicoMoney
    John BairdForeign ministerCanadaPolitics
    Bernard BajoletDirectorate-General for External Security head*FranceForce
    Steve BallmerMicrosoft CEOUSABrainsMoney
    Ban Ki-moonUnited Nations secretary-generalSouth KoreaGoodBully Pulpit
    Mario BarlettaRadical Civic Union presidentArgentinaPolitics
    José Manuel BarrosoEuropean Commission presidentPortugalPolitics
    Bartholomew IEcumenical patriarch of ConstantinopleTurkeyBully Pulpit
    Omar Hassan al-BashirPresidentSudanEvil
    Fatou BensoudaInternational Criminal Court prosecutorGambiaGood
    Ben BernankeFederal Reserve chairUSAMoneyBully Pulpit
    Pier Luigi BersaniDemocratic Party secretaryItalyPolitics
    Jeff BewkesTime Warner Inc. CEO and chairUSABully PulpitMoney
    Jeff BezosAmazon CEOUSABrainsMoney
    Ted BiancoWellcome Trust acting directorBritainGood
    Joseph BidenVice presidentUSAPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Carl BildtForeign ministerSwedenPolitics
    Robert BirgeneauU.C. Berkeley chancellorUSABrains
    Tony BlairFormer prime ministerBritainPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Lloyd BlankfeinGoldman Sachs CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Len BlavatnikAccess Industries chairUSAMoney
    Michael BloombergNew York mayorUSAPoliticsBully PulpitMoney
    John BoehnerSpeaker of the House of RepresentativesUSAPolitics
    Jean-Laurent BonnaféBNP Paribas CEO and directorFranceMoney
    Alexander BortnikovFSB directorRussiaForce
    Leszek BorysiewiczCambridge University chief executiveBritainBrains
    John BrennanCIA directorUSAForce
    Sergey BrinGoogle co-founderUSABrainsMoney
    Andrew BrownChurch Commissioners CEO and secretaryBritainGood
    Warren BuffettBerkshire Hathaway CEOUSABully PulpitMoney
    Ursula BurnsXerox CEOUSAMoney
    David CameronPrime ministerBritainPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Bob CarrForeign ministerAustraliaPolitics
    Vicente Carrillo FuentesJuárez cartel leaderMexicoEvil
    John ChambersCisco CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Margaret ChanWorld Health Organization director-generalChinaGood
    Norman ChanHong Kong Monetary Authority CEOHong KongMoney
    Stephen ChazenOccidental CEO and presidentUSAMoney
    Dhanin ChearavanontCharoen Pokphand Group chairThailandMoney
    Chen YuanChina Development Bank chairChinaMoney
    Cheng Yu-tungInvestorHong KongMoney
    Palaniappan ChidambaramFinance ministerIndiaMoney
    Jean-Paul ChiffletCrédit Agricole CEOFranceMoney
    James ClapperDirector of national intelligenceUSAForce
    Helen ClarkU.N. Development Program administratorNew ZealandGood
    Joseph ClaytonDish Network CEO and presidentUSABully Pulpit
    Bill ClintonFormer presidentUSAPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Hillary ClintonFormer secretary of stateUSAPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Tim CookApple CEOUSABrainsMoney
    Jean-François CopéUnion for a Popular Movement presidentFrancePolitics
    Michael CorbatCitigroup CEOUSAMoney
    Ertharin CousinU.N. World Food Program executive directorUSAGood
    James CunoJ. Paul Getty Trust CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Siyabonga CweleState security ministerSouth AfricaForce
    Ophelia DahlPartners in Health executive directorUSAGood
    Dai XianglongNational Council for Social Security Fund chairChinaMoney
    Dalai LamaTibetan spiritual leader Bully Pulpit
    Aliko DangoteDangote Group CEO and presidentNigeriaMoney
    Kim DarrochNational security advisorBritainForce
    Ahmet DavutogluForeign ministerTurkeyPolitics
    Henri de CastriesAXA CEO and chairFranceMoney
    Michael DellDell CEOUSABrainsMoney
    Leonardo Del VecchioLuxottica chairItalyMoney
    Thomas de MaizièreDefense ministerGermanyForce
    Christophe de MargerieTotal CEO and chairFranceMoney
    Martin DempseyChairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffUSAForce
    Hailemariam DesalegnAfrican Union chairEthiopiaPolitics
    Cobus de SwardtTransparency International managing directorSouth AfricaGood
    Philip de ToledoCapital Group Companies presidentUSAMoney
    Michael DiekmannAllianz CEO and chairGermanyMoney
    Jeroen DijsselbloemDutch finance minister and Eurogroup presidentNetherlandsMoney
    Sheila DikshitNew Delhi chief ministerIndiaPolitics
    Jamie DimonJPMorgan Chase CEO, chair, and presidentUSAMoney
    Daniel DoctoroffBloomberg L.P. CEO and presidentUSABully Pulpit
    Tom DonilonNational security advisorUSAForce
    Thomas DonohueChamber of Commerce CEO and presidentUSAPoliticsBully PulpitMoney
    Jack DorseyTwitter founder and Square Inc. CEOUSABully PulpitBrains
    Mario DraghiEuropean Central Bank presidentItalyMoney
    Abu Duaal Qaeda in Iraq leaderIraqEvil
    Jean-François DubosVivendi chairFranceBully Pulpit
    Bob DudleyBP CEOUSAMoney
    Mike DukeWalmart CEO and presidentUSAMoney
    Mark DybulGlobal Fund executive directorUSAGood
    Nabil ElarabyArab League secretary-generalEgyptPolitics
    Mohamed A. El-ErianPimco CEO and co-CIOUSAMoney
    John ElkannExor chairItalyMoney
    Larry EllisonOracle CEO and chairUSABrainsMoney
    Erik EngstromReed Elsevier CEOSwedenBully Pulpit
    Recep Tayyip ErdoganPrime ministerTurkeyPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Sergio ErmottiUBS CEOSwitzerlandMoney
    Laurent FabiusForeign ministerFrancePolitics
    Richard FaddenCanadian Security Intelligence Service directorCanadaForce
    Teuku FaizasyahInternational affairs advisorIndonesiaForce
    Mohsen Fakhrizadeh-MahabadiNuclear scientistIranEvil
    John FallonPearson CEOBritainBully Pulpit
    Fan ChanglongCentral Military Commission vice chairmanChinaForce
    Fang FenghuiPeople's Liberation Army chief of general staffChinaForce
    Drew Gilpin FaustHarvard University presidentUSABrains
    Jon FeltheimerLionsgate CEO and co-chairUSABully Pulpit
    Hakan FidanNational Intelligence Organization undersecretaryTurkeyForce
    Laurence FinkBlackRock CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Chris FinlaysonBG CEOBritainMoney
    Jürgen FitschenDeutsche Bank co-chairGermanyMoney
    James FlahertyFinance ministerCanadaMoney
    Maria das Graças Silva FosterPetrobras CEOBrazilMoney
    Mikhail FradkovForeign Intelligence Service headRussiaForce
    Pope FrancisHead of Catholic ChurchVatican CityBully Pulpit
    Vagner FreitasUnified Workers' Central presidentBrazilPolitics
    Mikhail FridmanAlfa Group Consortium chairRussiaMoney
    Fu ChengyuSinopec chairChinaMoney
    Osamu FujimuraChief cabinet secretaryJapanPolitics
    Robert GallucciMacArthur Foundation presidentUSAGood
    Sonia GandhiIndian National Congress party presidentIndiaPolitics
    Bill GatesBill & Melinda Gates Foundation co-chair and Microsoft co-founderUSAMoneyGood
    Melinda GatesGates Foundation co-chairUSAMoneyGood
    Valery GerasimovArmed forces chief of general staffRussiaForce
    Rostam GhasemiIranian oil ministerIranMoney
    Carlos GhosnNissan and Renault CEO and chairFranceMoney
    Julia GillardPrime ministerAustraliaPolitics
    Ivan GlasenbergGlencore CEOSouth AfricaMoney
    Robert GlasserCare International secretary-generalUSAGood
    Pravin GordhanFinance ministerSouth AfricaMoney
    Terry GouFoxconn CEOTaiwanMoney
    Mario GrecoAssicurazioni Generali CEOItalyMoney
    Brad GreyParamount Pictures CEO and chairUSABully Pulpit
    William GrossPimco co-CIO and managing directorUSAMoney
    Sérgio GuerraBrazilian Social Democracy Party presidentBrazilPolitics
    Abdullah GulPresidentTurkeyPolitics
    Fethullah GulenMuslim religious leaderTurkeyBully Pulpit
    Stuart GulliverHSBC group CEOBritainMoney
    Guo JinlongBeijing Communist Party secretaryChinaPolitics
    Guo ShengkunMinister of public securityChinaForce
    Ángel Gurrí­aOECD secretary-generalMexicoPolitics
    António GuterresU.N. high commissioner for refugeesPortugalGood
    Javier GutiérrezEcopetrol CEOColombiaMoney
    Joaquín Guzmán LoeraSinaloa drug cartel leaderMexicoEvil
    Fernando HaddadSão Paulo mayorBrazilPolitics
    Chuck HagelDefense secretaryUSAForce
    William HagueForeign ministerBritainPolitics
    Tony HallBBC director-generalBritainBully Pulpit
    Andrew HamiltonOxford University chief executiveBritainBrains
    Ingrid HammRobert Bosch Stiftung executive directorGermanyGood
    John HammergrenMcKesson CEO, chair, and presidentUSAMoney
    Philip HammondSecretary of state for defenseBritainForce
    Han ZhengShanghai Communist Party secretaryChinaPolitics
    Jalaluddin HaqqaniHaqqani network leaderAfghanistanEvil
    Stephen HarperPrime ministerCanadaPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Toru HashimotoOsaka mayorJapanPolitics
    Gerald HassellBank of New York Mellon CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Jimmy HayesCox Enterprises CEO and presidentUSABully Pulpit
    John HennessyStanford University presidentUSABrains
    Jeanine Hennis-PlasschaertDefense ministerNetherlandsForce
    Stephen HesterRoyal Bank of Scotland CEOBritainMoney
    Christoph HeusgenNational security advisorGermanyForce
    Marillyn HewsonLockheed Martin CEO and presidentUSAMoneyForce
    Hisashi HiedaFuji Media Holdings CEO and chairJapanBully Pulpit
    Nobuyuki HiranoMitsubishi UFJ Financial Group CEO and presidentJapanMoney
    Ho ChingTemasek CEO and executive directorSingaporeMoney
    Reid HoffmanLinkedIn co-founder and executive chairUSABrains
    François HollandePresidentFrancePoliticsBully Pulpit
    Jan HommenING CEONetherlandsMoney
    Mahabub HossainBRAC executive directorBangladeshGood
    Hyun Oh-seokFinance ministerSouth KoreaMoney
    Carl IcahnIcahn Enterprises chairUSAMoney
    Robert IgerWalt Disney Co. CEO and chairUSABully PulpitMoney
    Sergei IgnatievCentral Bank of Russia chairRussiaMoney
    Jeffrey ImmeltGeneral Electric CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Naoki InoseTokyo governorJapanPolitics
    Zaheer ul-IslamInter-Services Intelligence director-generalPakistanForce
    Jonathan IveApple senior VP for industrial designBritainBrains
    Paul JacobsQualcomm CEO and chairUSABrains
    Mohammad Ali JafariIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps commanderIranForceEvil
    Anshu JainDeutsche Bank co-chairBritainMoney
    Paul Jean-OrtizDiplomatic advisorFranceForce
    Antony JenkinsBarclays Group CEOBritainMoney
    Jiang JianqingIndustrial and Commercial Bank of China executive director and chairChinaMoney
    Jiang JieminState-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission chair*ChinaMoney
    Jiang ZeminFormer presidentChinaPolitics
    Edward JohnsonFidelity Investments CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Goodluck JonathanPresidentNigeriaPolitics
    Alok JoshiResearch and Analysis Wing chiefIndiaForce
    Banri KaiedaDemocratic Party of Japan presidentJapanPolitics
    Unni KarunakaraMédecins Sans Frontières presidentIndiaGood
    Hamid KarzaiPresidentAfghanistanPolitics
    Ashfaq Parvez KayaniChief of army staffPakistanForce
    Muhtar KentCoca-Cola CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Neal Keny-GuyerMercy Corps CEOUSAGood
    John KerrySecretary of stateUSAPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Ali KhameneiSupreme leaderIranForceEvil
    Salman KhurshidForeign ministerIndiaPolitics
    Paal KibsgaardSchlumberger CEONorwayMoney
    Kemal KilicdarogluRepublican People's Party chairTurkeyPolitics
    Kim Jang-sooNational security advisorSouth KoreaForce
    Jim Yong KimWorld Bank presidentUSAMoneyGood
    Kim Jong UnSupreme leaderNorth KoreaForceEvil
    Kim Kwan-jinDefense ministerSouth KoreaForce
    Ian KingBAE Systems CEOBritainMoneyForce
    Mervyn KingBank of England governorBritainMoney
    Cristina Fernández de KirchnerPresidentArgentinaPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Fumio KishidaForeign ministerJapanPolitics
    Henry KissingerFormer secretary of stateUSABrainsBully Pulpit
    Susanne KlattenInvestorGermanyMoney
    Bill KlesseValero CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Philip KnightNike chairUSAMoney
    Charles KochKoch Industries CEO and chairUSAPoliticsMoney
    David KochKoch Industries executive VPUSAPoliticsMoney
    Nobuaki KogaJapanese Trade Union Confederation, presidentJapanPolitics
    Larry KramerHewlett Foundation presidentUSAGood
    William KumuyiDeeper Christian Life Ministry general superintendentNigeriaBully Pulpit
    Haruhiko KurodaBank of Japan governorJapanMoney
    Raymond KwokSun Hung Kai Properties co-chairHong KongMoney
    Thomas KwokSun Hung Kai Properties co-chairHong KongMoney
    Oh-Hyun KwonSamsung CEOSouth KoreaBrainsMoney
    Christine LagardeIMF managing directorFranceMoneyGood
    Arnaud LagardèreLagardère CEO and chairFranceBully Pulpit
    Pascal LamyWorld Trade Organization director-generalFranceGood
    Ryan LanceConocoPhillips CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Germán Larrea Mota-VelascoGrupo México presidentMexicoMoney
    Carol LarsonPackard Foundation presidentUSAGood
    Risa Lavizzo-MoureyRobert Wood Johnson Foundation CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Sergei LavrovForeign ministerRussiaPolitics
    Jean-Yves Le DrianDefense ministerFranceForce
    Lee Shau-keeHenderson Land Development chairHong KongMoney
    Thierry LepaonGeneral Confederation of Labor secretary-generalFrancePolitics
    Richard LevinYale University presidentUSABrains
    Jacob LewTreasury secretaryUSAMoney
    Li HongzhiFalun Gong founderChinaBully Pulpit
    Li JianguoAll-China Federation of Trade Unions chairChinaPolitics
    Li Ka-shingHutchison Whampoa chairHong KongMoney
    Li KeqiangPremierChinaPolitics
    Li LihuiBank of China presidentChinaMoney
    Robin LiBaidu CEOChinaBully PulpitBrainsMoney
    Alfredo LimManila mayorPhilippinesPolitics
    Lim Siong GuanGovernment of Singapore Investment Corp. presidentSingaporeMoney
    Vladimir LisinNLMK chairRussiaMoney
    Liu ZhenyaState Grid Corp. presidentChinaMoney
    Andrés Manuel López ObradorOpposition leaderMexicoPolitics
    Hernán LorenzinoEconomic ministerArgentinaMoney
    Peter LöscherSiemens CEO and presidentAustriaMoney
    Lou JiweiFinance ministerChinaMoney
    Emilio Lozoya AustinPemex CEOMexicoMoney
    Helge LundStatoil CEO and presidentNorwayMoney
    Michael LyntonSony Entertainment CEO and chairUSABully Pulpit
    Peter MacKayDefense ministerCanadaForce
    Andrew MackenzieBHP Billiton CEOSouth AfricaMoney
    Gregory MaffeiLiberty Media CEO and presidentUSABully Pulpit
    Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumDefense ministerUAEPoliticsForce
    Miguel Ángel ManceraMexico City mayorMexicoPolitics
    Guido MantegaFinance ministerBrazilMoney
    Lutz MarmorARD chairGermanyBully Pulpit
    John MarsMars Inc. chairUSAMoney
    Agus MartowardojoFinance ministerIndonesiaMoney
    Masayuki MatsumotoNHK presidentJapanBully Pulpit
    Isao MatsushitaJX Holdings CEO and presidentJapanMoney
    Shigeo MatsutomiIntelligence chiefJapanForce
    Peter MaurerInternational Committee of the Red Cross presidentSwitzerlandGood
    Marissa MayerYahoo! CEOUSABully Pulpit
    Timothy MayopoulosFannie Mae CEOUSAMoney
    Lowell McAdamVerizon CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Margot McCarthyNational security advisorAustraliaForce
    Mitch McConnellSenate minority leaderUSAPolitics
    William McNabbVanguard CEO and chairUSAMoney
    James McNerneyBoeing CEO and chairUSAMoneyForce
    José Antonio MeadeForeign ministerMexicoPolitics
    Mourad MedelciForeign ministerAlgeriaPolitics
    Dmitry MedvedevPrime ministerRussiaPolitics
    Hakimullah MehsudPakistani Taliban leaderPakistanEvil
    Andrey MelnichenkoSiberian Coal Energy Co. chairRussiaMoney
    Shivshankar MenonNational security advisorIndiaForce
    Angela MerkelChancellorGermanyPoliticsBully PulpitMoney
    Khaled MeshaalHamas leaderWest BankForceEvil
    Gérard MestralletGDF Suez CEO and chairFranceMoney
    Yona MetzgerAshkenazi chief rabbiIsraelBully Pulpit
    Leonid MikhelsonNovatek executive directorRussiaMoney
    Carolyn MilesSave the Children CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Ed MilibandLabour Party leaderBritainPolitics
    Alexey MillerGazprom CEO and chairRussiaMoney
    Yuri MilnerDigital Sky Technologies founderRussiaBrainsMoney
    Le Luong MinhAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations secretary-generalVietnamPolitics
    Lakshmi MittalArcelorMittal CEO and chairIndiaMoney
    Semion MogilevichMafia bossRussiaEvil
    Nadir MohamedRogers Communications CEO and presidentCanadaBully Pulpit
    Moon Hee-sangDemocratic United Party leaderSouth KoreaPolitics
    Pedro MorenésDefense ministerSpainForce
    Mohamed MorsyPresidentEgyptPolitics
    Pierre MoscoviciFinance ministerFranceMoney
    Heydar MoslehiIntelligence ministerIranForce
    Brian MoynihanBank of America CEOUSAMoney
    Fahad al-MubarakSaudi Arabian Monetary Agency governorSaudi ArabiaMoney
    Alan MulallyFord CEO and presidentUSAMoney
    Tom MulcairNew Democratic Party leaderCanadaPolitics
    Rupert MurdochNews Corp. CEO and chairUSAMoneyBully Pulpit
    Elon MuskPayPal, SpaceX, and Tesla Motors founderUSAMoneyBrains
    Abdullah bin Zayed Al NahyanForeign ministerUAEPolitics
    Mohammed bin Zayed Al NahyanAbu Dhabi crown princeUAEPoliticsForceMoney
    Ali al-NaimiMinister of petroleumSaudi ArabiaMoney
    Hiroaki NakanishiHitachi presidentJapanBrainsMoney
    Nam Jae-joonNational Intelligence Service chiefSouth KoreaForce
    Janet NapolitanoHomeland security secretaryUSAForce
    Óscar NaranjoNational security advisorMexicoForce
    Hassan NasrallahHezbollah secretary-generalLebanonPoliticsForceEvil
    Marty NatalegawaForeign ministerIndonesiaPolitics
    Mohammed bin NayefInterior ministerSaudi ArabiaForce
    Benjamin NetanyahuPrime ministerIsraelPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Maite Nkoana-MashabaneForeign ministerSouth AfricaPolitics
    Indra NooyiPepsiCo CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Phebe NovakovicGeneral Dynamics CEO and chairUSAMoneyForce
    Christian NoyerBank of France governorFranceMoney
    Barack ObamaPresidentUSAPoliticsBully PulpitForceBrainsMoney
    Michelle ObamaFirst ladyUSABully Pulpit
    Frances O'GradyTrades Union Congress general secretaryBritainPolitics
    Mullah Mohammed OmarTaliban leaderAfghanistanForceEvil
    Keith O'NionsImperial College London rectorBritainBrains
    Itsunori OnoderaDefense ministerJapanForce
    Amancio OrtegaInditex founderSpainMoney
    George OsborneChancellor of the ExchequerBritainMoney
    Paul OtelliniIntel CEO and presidentUSABrainsMoney
    Michael OttoOtto Group chairGermanyMoney
    Ricardo Paes de BarrosSecretary of strategic affairsBrazilForce
    Larry PageGoogle CEOUSABrainsMoney
    Tamir PardoMossad directorIsraelForce
    Park Geun-hyePresidentSouth KoreaPolitics
    Park Won-soonSeoul mayorSouth KoreaPolitics
    Antonio PatriotaForeign ministerBrazilPolitics
    Nikolai PatrushevNational Security Council secretaryRussiaForce
    Enrique Peña NietoPresidentMexicoPoliticsBully Pulpit
    Yves PerrierAmundi CEOFranceMoney
    Stefan PerssonH&M chairSwedenMoney
    Navi PillayU.N. high commissioner for human rightsSouth AfricaGood
    François-Henri PinaultKering CEO and chairFranceMoney
    Juan Carlos PinzónDefense ministerColombiaForce
    Georges PlassatCarrefour CEOFranceMoney
    Vladimir PotaninInterros ownerRussiaMoney
    Scott PowersState Street Global Advisors CEO and presidentUSAMoney
    Sunil PrabhuMumbai mayorIndiaPolitics
    Vladimir PutinPresidentRussiaPoliticsBully PulpitForceMoney
    Yusuf al-QaradawiSunni clericEgyptBully Pulpit
    Thomas RabeBertelsmann CEO and chairGermanyBully Pulpit
    Bertrand Ract-MadouxArmy chief of staffFranceForce
    Baba RamdevHindu spiritual leaderIndiaBully Pulpit
    Rafael RamírezPDVSA presidentVenezuelaMoney
    Anders Fogh RasmussenNATO secretary-generalDenmarkForce
    Sumner RedstoneViacom and CBS chairUSABully Pulpit
    Olli RehnEuropean Commission finance ministerFinlandMoney
    Harry ReidSenate majority leaderUSAPolitics
    L. Rafael ReifMIT presidentUSABrains
    Stephen RigbyNational security advisorCanadaForce
    Rebecca RimelPew Charitable Trusts CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Georgina RinehartHancock Prospecting chair and directorAustraliaMoney
    Brian RobertsComcast CEO and chair and NBCUniversal chairUSABully Pulpit
    John RobertsSupreme Court chief justiceUSAPolitics
    Virginia RomettyIBM CEO, chair, and presidentUSABrainsMoney
    Kenneth RothHuman Rights Watch executive directorUSAGood
    Dilma RousseffPresidentBrazilPoliticsBully Pulpit
    David RubensteinCarlyle Group co-CEOUSAMoney
    George RuppInternational Rescue Committee CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Bader al-SaadKuwait Investment Authority managing directorKuwaitMoney
    Alfredo SáenzBanco Santander CEOSpainMoney
    Joseph SafraGrupo Safra chairBrazilMoney
    Atsuo SakaJapan Post Holdings CEOJapanMoney
    Sheryl SandbergFacebook COOUSABrains
    Norio SasakiToshiba presidentJapanBrainsMoney
    Yasuhiro SatoMizuho Financial Group CEO and presidentJapanMoney
    Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al SaudKingSaudi ArabiaPoliticsMoney
    Salman bin Abdulaziz Al SaudCrown princeSaudi ArabiaPoliticsMoney
    Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al SaudForeign ministerSaudi ArabiaPolitics
    John SawersSecret Intelligence Service chiefBritainForce
    Paolo ScaroniEni CEOItalyMoney
    Wolfgang SchäubleFinance ministerGermanyMoney
    Gerhard SchindlerFederal Intelligence Service presidentGermanyForce
    Dieter SchwarzSchwarz Group ownerGermanyMoney
    Igor SechinRosneft president and chairRussiaMoney
    Pierre ServantNatixis CEOFranceMoney
    Sri Sri Ravi ShankarHindu spiritual leaderIndiaBully Pulpit
    Mohamed Raafat ShehataGeneral Intelligence Service chiefEgyptForce
    Abdul-Aziz al-SheikhGrand muftiSaudi ArabiaBully Pulpit
    Salil ShettyAmnesty International secretary-generalIndiaGood
    Sergei ShoiguDefense ministerRussiaForce
    Faisal Al ShoubakiGeneral Intelligence Department directorJordanForce
    Radoslaw SikorskiForeign ministerPolandPolitics
    Anton SiluanovFinance ministerRussiaMoney
    Mehmet SimsekFinance ministerTurkeyMoney
    Manmohan SinghPrime ministerIndiaPolitics
    Carlos Slim HelúGrupo Carso founderMexicoMoney
    Yngve SlyngstadNorges Bank Investment Management CEONorwayMoney
    James SmithThomson Reuters CEO and presidentUSABully Pulpit
    Stephen SmithDefense ministerAustraliaForce
    Sergei SobyaninMoscow mayorRussiaPolitics
    Michael SommerConfederation of German Trade Unions presidentGermanyPolitics
    Masayoshi SonSoftBank Mobile CEOJapanBrains
    George SorosSoros Fund Management chairUSAMoney
    Sterling SpeirnKellogg Foundation CEO and presidentUSAGood
    Richard StearnsWorld Vision presidentUSAGood
    Peer SteinbrückSocial Democratic Party leaderGermanyPolitics
    Randall StephensonAT&T CEO and chairUSAMoney
    John StrangfeldPrudential Financial CEO and chairUSAMoney
    Megawati SukarnoputriIndonesian Democratic Party of Struggle chairIndonesiaPolitics
    Bandar bin SultanGeneral Intelligence Presidency chiefSaudi ArabiaForce
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